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Khonsu lost so many times that Thoth had enough moonlight to make five extra days. Since these days were not part of the year, Nut could have her children.

When Ra found out, he was furious. He separated Nut from her husband Geb for eternity. Her father, Shu , was to keep them apart.

Nevertheless, Nut did not regret her decision. Nut was the goddess of the sky and all heavenly bodies , a symbol of protecting the dead when they enter the afterlife.

According to the Egyptians , during the day, the heavenly bodies—such as the Sun and Moon —would make their way across her body.

Then, at dusk, they would be swallowed, pass through her belly during the night, and be reborn at dawn. Nut is also the barrier separating the forces of chaos from the ordered cosmos in the world.

She was pictured as a woman arched on her toes and fingertips over the Earth; her body portrayed as a star-filled sky.

Nut's fingers and toes were believed to touch the four cardinal points or directions of north, south, east, and west. Because of her role in saving Osiris, Nut was seen as a friend and protector of the dead, who appealed to her as a child appeals to its mother: "O my Mother Nut, stretch Yourself over me, that I may be placed among the imperishable stars which are in You, and that I may not die.

She was often painted on the inside lid of the sarcophagus , protecting the deceased. The vaults of tombs were often painted dark blue with many stars as a representation of Nut.

Give me of the water and of the air which is in thee. I embrace that throne which is in Unu, and I keep guard over the Egg of Nekek-ur.

It flourisheth, and I flourish; it liveth, and I live; it snuffeth the air, and I snuff the air, I the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace.

This is an important collection of ancient Egyptian astronomical texts, perhaps the earliest of several other such texts, going back at least to 2, BC.

Nut, being the sky goddess, plays the big role in the Book of Nut. The text also tells about various other sky and Earth deities, such as the star deities and the decans deities.

The cycles of the stars and the planets, and the time keeping are covered in the book. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Egyptian goddess of the sky. This article is about the Egyptian sky goddess. For the goddess in the cosmology of Thelema, see Nuit.

However, the humiliation meted out to Farouk, and the actions of the Wafd in cooperating with the British and taking power, lost support for both the British and the Wafd among both civilians and, more importantly, the Egyptian military.

Most British troops were withdrawn to the Suez Canal area in although the British army maintained a military base in the area , but nationalist, anti-British feelings continued to grow after the War.

Anti-monarchy sentiments further increased following the disastrous performance of the Kingdom in the First Arab-Israeli War.

In Egypt unilaterally withdrew from the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of and ordered all remaining British troops to leave the Suez Canal. As the British refused to leave their base around the Suez Canal, the Egyptian government cut off the water and refused to allow food into the Suez Canal base, announced a boycott of British goods, forbade Egyptian workers from entering the base and sponsored guerrilla attacks, turning the area around the Suez Canal into a low level war zone.

On 24 January , Egyptian guerrillas staged a fierce attack on the British forces around the Suez Canal, during which the Egyptian Auxiliary Police were observed helping the guerrillas.

In response, on 25 January, General George Erskine sent out British tanks and infantry to surround the auxiliary police station in Ismailia and gave the policemen an hour to surrender their arms on the grounds the police were arming the guerrillas.

The police commander called the Interior Minister, Fouad Serageddin , Nahas's right-hand man, who was smoking cigars in his bath at the time, to ask if he should surrender or fight.

Serageddin ordered the police to fight "to the last man and the last bullet". The resulting battle saw the police station levelled and 43 Egyptian policemen killed together with 3 British soldiers.

The Ismailia incident outraged Egypt. The next day, 26 January was "Black Saturday" , as the anti-British riot was known, that saw much of downtown Cairo which the Khedive Ismail the Magnificent had rebuilt in the style of Paris, burned down.

Farouk blamed the Wafd for the Black Saturday riot, and dismissed Nahas as prime minister the next day. He was replaced by Aly Maher Pasha. Farouk I abdicated the throne to his son Fouad II , who was, at the time, a seven month old baby.

The Royal Family left Egypt some days later and the Council of Regency, led by Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim was formed, The council, however, held only nominal authority and the real power was actually in the hands of the Revolutionary Command Council , led by Naguib and Nasser.

Popular expectations for immediate reforms led to the workers' riots in Kafr Dawar on 12 August , which resulted in two death sentences.

Following a brief experiment with civilian rule, the Free Officers abrogated the monarchy and the constitution and declared Egypt a republic on 18 June Naguib was proclaimed as president, while Nasser was appointed as the new Prime Minister.

Following the Revolution by the Free Officers Movement , the rule of Egypt passed to military hands and all political parties were banned.

On 18 June , the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic, serving in that capacity for a little under one and a half years.

After Naguib's resignation, the position of President was vacant until the election of Gamal Abdel Nasser in In October Egypt and the United Kingdom agreed to abolish the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of and grant Sudan independence; the agreement came into force on 1 January Nasser assumed power as president in June British forces completed their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone on 13 June The union was short-lived, ending in when Syria seceded, thus ending the union.

The Arab Socialist Union , a new nasserist state-party was founded in The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the Yemeni republicans with as many as 70, Egyptian troops and chemical weapons.

Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egyptian commitment in Yemen was greatly undermined later.

Although the chief of staff Mohamed Fawzi verified them as "baseless", [57] [58] Nasser took three successive steps that made the war virtually inevitable: on 14 May he deployed his troops in Sinai near the border with Israel, on 19 May he expelled the UN peacekeepers stationed in the Sinai Peninsula border with Israel, and on 23 May he closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping.

Israel re-iterated that the Straits of Tiran closure was a Casus belli. At the time of the fall of the Egyptian monarchy in the early s, less than half a million Egyptians were considered upper class and rich, four million middle class and 17 million lower class and poor.

Nasser's policies changed this. Land reform and distribution, the dramatic growth in university education, and government support to national industries greatly improved social mobility and flattened the social curve.

From academic year —54 through —66, overall public school enrolments more than doubled. Millions of previously poor Egyptians, through education and jobs in the public sector, joined the middle class.

Doctors, engineers, teachers, lawyers, journalists, constituted the bulk of the swelling middle class in Egypt under Nasser.

In , President Nasser died of a heart attack and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition.

It presented Sadat with a victory that allowed him to regain the Sinai later in return for peace with Israel. In , Sadat shifted Nasser's economic policies and sought to use his popularity to reduce government regulations and encourage foreign investment through his program of Infitah.

Through this policy, incentives such as reduced taxes and import tariffs attracted some investors, but investments were mainly directed at low risk and profitable ventures like tourism and construction, abandoning Egypt's infant industries.

Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in , which led to the peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League , but it was supported by most Egyptians.

Hosni Mubarak came to power after the assassination of Sadat in a referendum in which he was the only candidate. Hosni Mubarak reaffirmed Egypt's relationship with Israel yet eased the tensions with Egypt's Arab neighbours.

Domestically, Mubarak faced serious problems. Even though farm and industry output expanded, the economy could not keep pace with the population boom.

Mass poverty and unemployment led rural families to stream into cities like Cairo where they ended up in crowded slums, barely managing to survive.

On 25 February Security Police started rioting, protesting against reports that their term of duty was to be extended from 3 to 4 years.

Hotels, nightclubs, restaurants and casinos were attacked in Cairo and there were riots in other cities. A day time curfew was imposed.

It took the army 3 days to restore order. In the s, s, and s, terrorist attacks in Egypt became numerous and severe, and began to target Christian Copts , foreign tourists and government officials.

Serious damage was done to the largest sector of Egypt's economy—tourism [70] —and in turn to the government, but it also devastated the livelihoods of many of the people on whom the group depended for support.

During Mubarak's reign, the political scene was dominated by the National Democratic Party , which was created by Sadat in It passed the Syndicates Law, Press Law, and Nongovernmental Associations Law which hampered freedoms of association and expression by imposing new regulations and draconian penalties on violations.

On 17 November , 62 people, mostly tourists, were massacred near Luxor. In late February , Mubarak announced a reform of the presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls for the first time since the movement.

Human Rights Watch's report on Egypt detailed serious human rights violations, including routine torture , arbitrary detentions and trials before military and state security courts.

Constitutional changes voted on 19 March prohibited parties from using religion as a basis for political activity, allowed the drafting of a new anti-terrorism law, authorised broad police powers of arrest and surveillance, and gave the president power to dissolve parliament and end judicial election monitoring.

Dessouki also stated that "the real center of power in Egypt is the military". On 25 January , widespread protests began against Mubarak's government.

On 11 February , Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. Jubilant celebrations broke out in Cairo's Tahrir Square at the news. A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March On 28 November , Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power.

Turnout was high and there were no reports of major irregularities or violence. Mohamed Morsi was elected president on 24 June Liberal and secular groups walked out of the constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood backers threw their support behind Morsi.

The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt. On 3 July , after a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood government, [97] the military removed Morsi from office, dissolved the Shura Council and installed a temporary interim government.

On 4 July , year-old Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour was sworn in as acting president over the new government following the removal of Morsi.

On 18 January , the interim government instituted a new constitution following a referendum approved by an overwhelming majority of voters The Muslim Brotherhood and some liberal and secular activist groups boycotted the vote.

A new parliamentary election was held in December , resulting in a landslide victory for pro-Sisi parties, which secured a strong majority in the newly formed House of Representatives.

In , Egypt entered in a diplomatic crisis with Italy following the murder of researcher Giulio Regeni : in April , Prime Minister Matteo Renzi recalled the Italian ambassador from Cairo because of lack of co-operation from the Egyptian Government in the investigation.

El-Sisi was re-elected in , facing no serious opposition. In , a series of constitutional amendments were approved by the parliament, further increasing the President's and the military's power, increasing presidential terms from 4 years to 6 years and allowing El-Sisi to run for other two mandates.

The proposals were approved in a referendum. Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, the Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east.

Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation , it possesses a land bridge the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, traversed by a navigable waterway the Suez Canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea.

Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a few oases scattered about. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara desert and of the Libyan Desert.

These deserts protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats and were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt.

On 13 March , plans for a proposed new capital of Egypt were announced. Most of Egypt's rain falls in the winter months. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta , Baltim and Sidi Barrani , and rarely in Alexandria.

A very small amount of snow fell on Cairo on 13 December , the first time in many decades. Egypt is the driest and the sunniest country in the world, and most of its land surface is desert.

Egypt has an unusually hot, sunny and dry climate. Average high temperatures are high in the north but very to extremely high in the rest of the country during summer.

The cooler Mediterranean winds consistently blow over the northern sea coast, which helps to get more moderated temperatures, especially at the height of the summertime.

The Khamaseen is a hot, dry wind that originates from the vast deserts in the south and blows in the spring or in the early summer.

The absolute highest temperatures in Egypt occur when the Khamaseen blows. The weather is always sunny and clear in Egypt, especially in cities such as Aswan , Luxor and Asyut.

It is one of the least cloudy and least rainy regions on Earth. This gave Egypt a consistent harvest throughout the years.

The potential rise in sea levels due to global warming could threaten Egypt's densely populated coastal strip and have grave consequences for the country's economy, agriculture and industry.

Combined with growing demographic pressures, a significant rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the 21st century, according to some climate experts.

Egypt signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 9 June , and became a party to the convention on 2 June The plan stated that the following numbers of species of different groups had been recorded from Egypt: algae species , animals about 15, species of which more than 10, were insects , fungi more than species , monera species , plants species , protozoans species.

For some major groups, for example lichen-forming fungi and nematode worms, the number was not known. Apart from small and well-studied groups like amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles, the many of those numbers are likely to increase as further species are recorded from Egypt.

For the fungi, including lichen-forming species, for example, subsequent work has shown that over species have been recorded from Egypt, and the final figure of all fungi actually occurring in the country is expected to be much higher.

The House of Representatives , whose members are elected to serve five-year terms, specialises in legislation.

Elections were last held between November and January which was later dissolved. The next parliamentary election was announced to be held within 6 months of the constitution's ratification on 18 January , and were held in two phases, from 17 October to 2 December Official figures showed a turnout of 25,, or After a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of the Muslim Brotherhood government of President Mohamed Morsi , [97] on 3 July then- General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced the removal of Morsi from office and the suspension of the constitution.

A member constitution committee was formed for modifying the constitution which was later published for public voting and was adopted on 18 January In , Freedom House rated political rights in Egypt at 5 with 1 representing the most free and 7 the least , and civil liberties at 5, which gave it the freedom rating of "Partly Free".

Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the 19th century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century.

Egypt has the oldest continuous parliamentary tradition in the Arab world. It was disbanded as a result of the British occupation of , and the British allowed only a consultative body to sit.

In , however, after the country's independence was declared, a new constitution provided for a parliamentary monarchy. The legal system is based on Islamic and civil law particularly Napoleonic codes ; and judicial review by a Supreme Court, which accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction only with reservations.

Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation. Sharia courts and qadis are run and licensed by the Ministry of Justice.

In a family court, a woman's testimony is worth half of a man's testimony. On 26 December , the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to institutionalise a controversial new constitution.

The Penal code was unique as it contains a " Blasphemy Law. Several Americans and Canadians were sentenced to death in On 18 January , the interim government successfully institutionalised a more secular constitution.

The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights is one of the longest-standing bodies for the defence of human rights in Egypt.

Coptic Christians face discrimination at multiple levels of the government, ranging from underrepresentation in government ministries to laws that limit their ability to build or repair churches.

Clashes continued between police and supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi. During violent clashes that ensued as part of the August sit-in dispersal , protesters were killed [] with 14 August becoming the single deadliest day in Egypt's modern history.

Egypt actively practices capital punishment. Egypt's authorities do not release figures on death sentences and executions, despite repeated requests over the years by human rights organisations.

Sentenced supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi were to be executed for their alleged role in violence following his removal in July The judgement was condemned as a violation of international law.

After Morsi was ousted by the military, the judiciary system aligned itself with the new government, actively supporting the repression of Muslim Brotherhood members.

This resulted in a sharp increase in mass death sentences that arose criticism from then-U. Homosexuality is illegal in Egypt.

In , Cairo was voted the most dangerous megacity for women with more than 10 million inhabitants in a poll by Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Sexual harassment was described as occurring on a daily basis. Some critics of the government have been arrested for allegedly spreading false information about the COVID pandemic in Egypt.

The military is influential in the political and economic life of Egypt and exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors.

It enjoys considerable power, prestige and independence within the state and has been widely considered part of the Egyptian " deep state ".

Trump praised al-Sisi in what was reported as a public relations victory for the Egyptian president, and signaled it was time for a normalization of the relations between Egypt and the US.

The Egyptian military has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods. The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world.

Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank.

Relations with China have also improved considerably. In , Egypt and China established a bilateral "comprehensive strategic partnership". The permanent headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the body's secretary general has traditionally been Egyptian.

This position is currently held by former foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit. Gulf monarchies, including the United Arab Emirates [] and Saudi Arabia , [] have pledged billions of dollars to help Egypt overcome its economic difficulties since the overthrow of Morsi.

Following the war and the subsequent peace treaty, Egypt became the first Arab nation to establish diplomatic relations with Israel.

Despite that, Israel is still widely considered as a hostile state by the majority of Egyptians. Tensions with Iran are mostly due to Egypt's peace treaty with Israel and Iran's rivalry with traditional Egyptian allies in the Gulf.

It is also a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie , since In , Egypt was estimated to have two million African refugees, including over 20, Sudanese nationals registered with UNHCR as refugees fleeing armed conflict or asylum seekers.

Egypt adopted "harsh, sometimes lethal" methods of border control. Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are further divided into regions.

The regions contain towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital, sometimes carrying the same name as the governorate. Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Libya , Saudi Arabia , the Persian Gulf and Europe.

The completion of the Aswan High Dam in and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honoured place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt.

A rapidly growing population, limited arable land , and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy.

The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt's economy mainly relies on these sources of income: tourism, remittances from Egyptians working abroad and revenues from the Suez Canal.

Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas , and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits in the northeast Sinai are mined at the rate of about , tonnes , long tons; , short tons per year.

Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez , and the Nile Delta. In , the Egyptian General Petroleum Co EGPC said the country will cut exports of natural gas and tell major industries to slow output this summer to avoid an energy crisis and stave off political unrest, Reuters has reported.

Egypt is counting on top liquid natural gas LNG exporter Qatar to obtain additional gas volumes in summer, while encouraging factories to plan their annual maintenance for those months of peak demand, said EGPC chairman, Tarek El Barkatawy.

Egypt produces its own energy, but has been a net oil importer since and is rapidly becoming a net importer of natural gas. Economic conditions have started to improve considerably, after a period of stagnation, due to the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market.

In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund IMF has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms. Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the limited trickle down of wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticise their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant.

Corruption is often cited by Egyptians as the main impediment to further economic growth. The information technology IT sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises.

The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement. An estimated 2. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy.

More than The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's best-known tourist attractions; it is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

Egypt's beaches on the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, which extend to over 3, kilometres 1, miles , are also popular tourist destinations; the Gulf of Aqaba beaches, Safaga , Sharm el-Sheikh , Hurghada , Luxor , Dahab , Ras Sidr and Marsa Alam are popular sites.

Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. It is considered one of the most important recent projects in Egypt which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds.

The system consists of three operational lines with a fourth line expected in the future. EgyptAir , which is now the country's flag carrier and largest airline, was founded in by Egyptian industrialist Talaat Harb , today owned by the Egyptian government.

The airline is based at Cairo International Airport , its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East , Europe , Africa , Asia , and the Americas.

The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes. The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of the maritime transport in the Middle East , connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.

Opened in November after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa.

The canal is It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer.

The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez. On 26 August a proposal was made for opening a New Suez Canal. Work on the New Suez Canal was completed in July Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation in rural areas and invested in infrastructure.

About one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers. Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 17, children die each year because of diarrhoea.

This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring.

Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues.

Due to the absence of appreciable rainfall, Egypt's agriculture depends entirely on irrigation. The main source of irrigation water is the river Nile of which the flow is controlled by the high dam at Aswan.

In the Nile valley and delta, almost 33, square kilometres 13, sq mi of land benefit from these irrigation waters producing on average 1. Egypt is the most populated country in the Arab world and the third most populous on the African continent , with about 95 million inhabitants as of [update].

Egypt's people are highly urbanised, being concentrated along the Nile notably Cairo and Alexandria , in the Delta and near the Suez Canal.

Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin , or farmers, that reside in rural villages.

While emigration was restricted under Nasser, thousands of Egyptian professionals were dispatched abroad in the context of the Arab Cold War.

Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the southeasternmost corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases.

Some 5 million immigrants live in Egypt, mostly Sudanese , "some of whom have lived in Egypt for generations. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the total number of "people of concern" refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people was about , In , the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was ,, a decrease from the previous year.

The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared , with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism.

Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities. The official language of the Republic is Arabic.

The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English , French , German and Italian. Historically Egyptian was spoken, of which the latest stage is Coptic Egyptian.

Spoken Coptic was mostly extinct by the 17th century but may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century.

It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion.

The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. Egypt was a Christian country before the 7th century, and after Islam arrived, the country was gradually Islamised into a majority-Muslim country.

Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat , Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law.

There is also a Shi'a minority. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese , who belong to Greek Catholic , Greek Orthodox , and Maronite Catholic denominations.

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities.

Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place.

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest church in the country.

Egypt is also the home of Al-Azhar University founded in CE, began teaching in CE , which is today the world's "most influential voice of establishment Sunni Islam" and is, by some measures, the second-oldest continuously operating university in world.

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. A court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television.

Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the s and s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world.

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam , Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic , and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.

The work of early 19th century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles.

Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi , who themselves studied the history , language and antiquities of Egypt.

They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture.

Egyptian blue , also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment.

The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids , temples and monumental tombs.

Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep , the Sphinx , and the temple of Abu Simbel.

Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef , to Mahmoud Mokhtar 's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous.

The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature.

Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature , and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Arab world.

Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi , well known for her feminist activism , and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World , attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control. Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound.

In , Studio Misr , financed by industrialist Talaat Harb , emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades.

Actors from all over the Arab world seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity.

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music , which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world.

Egyptians used music instruments since then. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu al-Hamuli , Almaz and Mahmoud Osman, who influenced the later work of Sayed Darwish , Umm Kulthum , Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez whose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt and the whole Arab world.

Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles — raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire, as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with raqs baladi.

Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages.

Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.

The Grand Egyptian Museum GEM , also known as the Giza Museum, is an under construction museum that will house the largest collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts in the world, it has been described as the world's largest archaeological museum.

The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May that the museum will be partially opened in May Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid.

They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion.

Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights local lanterns known as fawanees and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.

Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes. Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground.

Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed.

Some consider kushari a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni to be the national dish. Fried onions can be also added to kushari.

In addition, ful medames mashed fava beans is one of the most popular dishes. Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.

Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.

They're known as the " African Club of the Century ". With twenty titles, Al Ahly is currently the world's most successful club in terms of international trophies, surpassing Italy's A.

Milan and Argentina's Boca Juniors , both having eighteen. The Egyptian national football team , known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in , , and Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the and the Olympics.

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the s.

Amr Shabana and Ramy Ashour are Egypt's best players and both were ranked the world's number one squash player. Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.

The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt started in with the launch of the country's first telegram line connecting Cairo and Alexandria.

The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.

Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.

The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.

In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five. Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was Egypt spends 3. In , there were As a result of modernisation efforts over the years, Egypt's healthcare system has made great strides forward.

Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. The total number of Egyptians with health insurance reached 37 million in , of which 11 million are minors, providing an insurance coverage of approximately 52 percent of Egypt's population.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Solve them and they may well tell you how to extract the treasure from the finely detailed symbols of Ra, Cleopatra and many themed items.

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Nut Ancient Egyptian : Nwt , also known by various other transcriptions , is the goddess of the sky , stars, cosmos, mothers, astronomy, and the universe in the ancient Egyptian religion.

She was seen as a star-covered nude woman arching over the Earth, [1] or as a cow. She was depicted wearing the water-pot sign nw that identifies her.

The pronunciation of ancient Egyptian is uncertain because vowels were long omitted from its writing, although her name often includes the unpronounced determinative hieroglyph for " sky ".

Her name Nwt , itself also meaning "Sky", [2] is usually transcribed as "Nut" but also sometimes appears in older sources as Nunut , Nent , and Nuit.

She also appears in the hieroglyphic record by a number of epithets , not all of which are understood. Nut is a daughter of Shu and Tefnut.

Her brother and husband is Geb. She was originally the goddess of the nighttime sky , but eventually became referred to as simply the sky goddess.

Her headdress was the hieroglyphic of part of her name, a pot , which may also symbolize the uterus. Mostly depicted in nude human form, Nut was also sometimes depicted in the form of a cow whose great body formed the sky and heavens, a sycamore tree , or as a giant sow , suckling many piglets representing the stars.

A sacred symbol of Nut was the ladder used by Osiris to enter her heavenly skies. This ladder-symbol was called maqet and was placed in tombs to protect the deceased, and to invoke the aid of the deity of the dead.

Nut and her brother, Geb, may be considered enigmas in the world of mythology. In direct contrast to most other mythologies which usually develop a sky father associated with an Earth mother or Mother Nature , she personified the sky and he the Earth.

Nut appears in the creation myth of Heliopolis which involves several goddesses who play important roles: Tefnut Tefenet is a personification of moisture, who mated with Shu Air and then gave birth to Sky as the goddess Nut, who mated with her brother Earth, as Geb.

From the union of Geb and Nut came, among others, the most popular of Egyptian goddesses, Isis , the mother of Horus , whose story is central to that of her brother-husband, the resurrection god Osiris.

Osiris is killed by his brother Set and scattered over the Earth in 14 pieces, which Isis gathers up and puts back together. Ra , the sun god , was the second to rule the world, according to the reign of the gods.

Ra was a strong ruler but he feared anyone taking his throne. When he discovered that Nut was to have children, he was furious.

He decreed, "Nut shall not give birth any day of the year. Nut spoke to Thoth , god of wisdom , and he had a plan. Thoth gambled with Khonsu , god of the Moon , whose light rivaled that of Ra's.

Every time Khonsu lost, he had to give Thoth some of his moonlight. Khonsu lost so many times that Thoth had enough moonlight to make five extra days.

Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese , who belong to Greek Catholic , Greek Orthodox , and Maronite Catholic denominations.

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities.

Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place.

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest church in the country.

Egypt is also the home of Al-Azhar University founded in CE, began teaching in CE , which is today the world's "most influential voice of establishment Sunni Islam" and is, by some measures, the second-oldest continuously operating university in world.

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. A court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television.

Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the s and s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world.

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam , Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic , and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.

The work of early 19th century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles.

Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi , who themselves studied the history , language and antiquities of Egypt.

They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture.

Egyptian blue , also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment.

The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids , temples and monumental tombs.

Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep , the Sphinx , and the temple of Abu Simbel.

Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef , to Mahmoud Mokhtar 's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous.

The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature.

Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature , and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Arab world.

Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi , well known for her feminist activism , and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World , attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control.

Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound. In , Studio Misr , financed by industrialist Talaat Harb , emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades.

Actors from all over the Arab world seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity.

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music , which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world.

Egyptians used music instruments since then. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu al-Hamuli , Almaz and Mahmoud Osman, who influenced the later work of Sayed Darwish , Umm Kulthum , Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez whose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt and the whole Arab world.

Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles — raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire, as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with raqs baladi.

Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages.

Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.

The Grand Egyptian Museum GEM , also known as the Giza Museum, is an under construction museum that will house the largest collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts in the world, it has been described as the world's largest archaeological museum.

The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May that the museum will be partially opened in May Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid.

They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion.

Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights local lanterns known as fawanees and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.

Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes. Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground.

Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed. Some consider kushari a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni to be the national dish.

Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames mashed fava beans is one of the most popular dishes.

Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.

Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.

They're known as the " African Club of the Century ". With twenty titles, Al Ahly is currently the world's most successful club in terms of international trophies, surpassing Italy's A.

Milan and Argentina's Boca Juniors , both having eighteen. The Egyptian national football team , known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in , , and Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the and the Olympics.

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the s.

Amr Shabana and Ramy Ashour are Egypt's best players and both were ranked the world's number one squash player. Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.

The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt started in with the launch of the country's first telegram line connecting Cairo and Alexandria.

The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.

Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.

The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.

In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five. Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was Egypt spends 3. In , there were As a result of modernisation efforts over the years, Egypt's healthcare system has made great strides forward.

Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. The total number of Egyptians with health insurance reached 37 million in , of which 11 million are minors, providing an insurance coverage of approximately 52 percent of Egypt's population.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Egypt disambiguation. Country spanning Northern Africa and Western Asia. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.

In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation". It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". The ancient Egyptian name of the country was.

Main article: History of Egypt. Main articles: Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt. Main articles: Ptolemaic Kingdom and Egypt Roman province.

Main article: Egypt in the Middle Ages. Main article: Egypt Eyalet. Main article: History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty.

Main article: Khedivate of Egypt. Main article: Sultanate of Egypt. Main article: Kingdom of Egypt. Main article: History of the Republic of Egypt.

Main article: Egyptian revolution of Main article: Geography of Egypt. Main article: Climate of Egypt. Main article: Wildlife of Egypt.

Main article: Politics of Egypt. Main article: Egyptian Civil Code. Main article: Human rights in Egypt. Main articles: Governorates of Egypt and Subdivisions of Egypt.

Governorates of Egypt. Matrouh 2. Alexandria 3. Beheira 4. Kafr El Sheikh 5. Dakahlia 6. Damietta 7. Port Said 8. North Sinai 9. Gharbia Monufia Qalyubia Sharqia Ismailia Giza Faiyum Cairo Suez South Sinai Beni Suef Minya New Valley Asyut Red Sea Sohag Qena Luxor Main article: Economy of Egypt.

Main article: Tourism in Egypt. Main article: Energy in Egypt. Main article: Transport in Egypt. Main article: Suez Canal.

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt. Main articles: Demographics of Egypt and Egyptians.

Main article: Languages of Egypt. Main article: Religion in Egypt. See also: List of cities and towns in Egypt. Largest cities or towns in Egypt census.

Main article: Culture of Egypt. Main article: Egyptian literature. Main article: Media of Egypt. Main article: Cinema of Egypt.

Main article: Music of Egypt. Main article: List of museums in Egypt. Main article: Egyptian cuisine.

Main article: Telecommunications in Egypt. Main article: Egypt Post. Main article: Education in Egypt. Main article: Health in Egypt.

Egypt portal. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 20 June Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice.

In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.

Retrieved 5 March Ibrahim of Egypt. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 10 February Gov — Arab Republic of Egypt.

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Retrieved 14 December World Bank. Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 8 February United Nations Development Programme.

Egypt State Information Service. Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 15 April Westview Press. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Archived PDF from the original on 18 July Retrieved 13 April International Studies Review. Royal Ramesside Residence".

Trinity Journal : 1. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 30 September Il-Malti in Maltese 2 ed.

Il-Ghaqda tal-Kittieba tal-Malti. Archived from the original PDF on 17 April However, the application of the possibly "dual" ending to some toponyms and other words, a development peculiar to Hebrew, does not in fact imply any "two-ness" about the place.

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Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 28 May Vol 1 of 2. Ed: Alan S Kaye. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, p. University of Bristol School of Chemistry.

Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 21 August Piccione Ancient Records of Egypt. University of Illinois Press.

The British Museum. Archived from the original on 14 February The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 3 November Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 25 August Berkeley: University of California Press.

Portraits of the Ptolemies: Greek kings as Egyptian pharaohs. Austin: University of Texas Press. Archived from the original on 20 December Coptic Egypt: History and Guide.

Cairo: American University in Cairo, Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. London: UCL Press. New York: Oxford University Press.

Archived from the original on 17 January The Ottoman Empire, — Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 21 June Abu Nasser of the Arabs: an Arab assessment.

Third World Centre for Research and Publishing. A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present.

Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabs , p. Metuchen, NJ; ; Scarecrow. Egypt, A Short History. Retrieved 29 January A History of Modern Sudan. The World Factbook.

Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 2 February Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 24 September Mutawi Jordan in the War.

International Federation for Human Rights. Princeton University Press. Jordan USMC Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 20 April London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 October Simon Ingram p. Retrieved 27 September Carnegie Papers: Middle East Series 66 : 4.

Business Today Egypt. Archived from the original on 10 March Archived from the original on 7 January San Francisco Chronicle.

Archived from the original on 15 September Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 February Department of State.

Archived from the original on 21 October Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 14 November BBC News.

Archived from the original on 26 November Archived from the original on 31 March Archived from the original on 29 November US Department of State.

Archived from the original on 28 January Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 22 March Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 11 February The Daily Telegraph.

The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces shall represent it internally and externally. Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 2 December Archived from the original on 12 May Associated Press.

Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 22 November Archived from the original on 27 November Wall Street Journal.

Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 8 December Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 8 December Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 3 July Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Archived from the original on 4 August Retrieved 29 July The Independent. Archived from the original on 4 September The Washington Post.

Archived from the original on 20 June Archived from the original on 5 August Archived from the original on 29 July You'll also want to go wild in Ancient Egypt as much as you can and the Wild Ankhs hold the key to creating even more paytable prizes as they can substitute for all other paytable symbols when appearing on reels 2, 3 and 4.

Spin-in 3 to 5 Scattered Nile Symbols and you'll win 3 to 7 Free Spins during which Wild Ankhs have the power to expand to cover a full reel.

Scattered Niles can also award instant wins of up to , coins. After any spin you may also be lucky enough to be awarded the special Jackpot Bonus.

You'll be whisked to a special room where you find 12 playing cards face-down. Simply start picking them to reveal instant prizes — and you can keep picking until you find 3 cards of the same suit.

All wins of less than 15, coins may also be gambled on the Gamble Feature in which you just have to guess whether a card will be red or black.

Every player gets to play all 40 pay-lines on each spin, and you simply have to choose a credit-bet and credit-value combination to suit your budget or style of play.

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